Camera is the device which is used to capture images either as a still photograph or movies and videos. The term Camera was derived from the term Camera Obscura which means "Dark Chamber" and the device camera is also an improvised evolution of the Camera Obscura. Camera works best with proper light source. The device Camera, comprises of a hollow box an opening for the light to enter and at the other end is present a viewing surface which captures the light. A lens is placed in front of the camera to capture the incoming light and focus it on the recording surface.
There are basically two types of camera, one the still cameras and the other are the movie or the video cameras. These both cameras differ in the way the images are captures. In a still camera one can capture a still image at a time whereas in a movie camera, numerous images are captured in a sequence. Some of the most common types of camera are the:
- 35 Film Cameras
- Disposable cameras
- Point and shoot camera or the compact camera,
- SLR Cameras
The mechanism of work of a camera is basically, capturing the image, focus and exposure control. The images in a traditional camera are captured on a photographic film whereas some digital cameras have CCD to capture the images. Focus in the aspect of camera means the ability to capture the image of objects which are present within a set range of distance of the photographic lenses. The focus of some cameras can also be adjusted. Exposure control of a camera can be adjusted by the brightness of the surrounding where the subject is placed and by the size of the aperture which lets the light to pass in and the shutter which allows the needed amount of time for the light to pass in.
The simple cameras can be easily categorized as low end amateur cameras which are not to costly and can be used by people who want to master the art of photography, they often have fixed focus lenses whereas the high end professional cameras are made specifically to meet the style of photographing a certain object. Theses cameras are often a bit more complex where the camera person can adjust the aperture and the focus of the camera as per the style in which a particular subject is to be shot.
Cameras have been improvised and innovated in several ways to meet the varied criteria of the art of photography and photographers and specific photography.