Quit India Movement
What is Quit India Movement?
The Quit India Movement also called the August Movement of India or the Bharat Chhodo Andolan was a civil disobedience movement that was launched in the month of August, in the year 1942. The Quit India Movement was a call by Mahatma Gandhi for the country's immediate independence.
Purpose of Quit India Movement
Gandhi wanted to negotiate with the British government for the independence of India. Gandhi made a speech and within 24 hours the entire Congress was confined. This provoked Gandhi to launch the 1942 Quit India Movement. The main purpose of this civil disobedience movement of India was to face the British in the non-violent ways. It was during this time that Gandhi made a statement: "We shall either free India or die in the attempt; We shall not live to see the perpetuation of our slavery". However, the British government declared the Quit India Movement illegal and with this arrested the major leaders. This triggered a series of revolts and marked an important phase in the history of India.
Factors leading to Quit India Movement
The main factor which led to the launch of the Quit India Movement was Gandhi's protest against the return of Sir Stafford Cripps. On 14th July 1942, the Congress Working Committee adopted the 'Quit India' resolution and on 8th August, 1942, the resolution was accepted by the All India Congress Committee after some modifications. These two dates are very significant in the Indian history of independence movements.
Effects of Quit India Movement
- On 9th August leaders of the Congress like Abul Kalam Azad, Vallabhbhai Patel, Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru were arrested.
- Gandhi's slogan - 'do or die' ignited the Indian sentiments and people in masses came to face the British with boldness. Their motto was to revolt with non-violence.
- Viceroy - Lord Linlithgow adopted the policy of harsh violence and destroyed the atmosphere of non violence. people.
- In the first phase of the Quit India Movement, there were processions, strikes and demonstrations
- The second phase of the movement saw raids in the government buildings and municipal houses. Along with this, post offices, railway stations and police stations were set on fire.
- The third phase of Quit India movement began in September 1942. Mobs bombed police in places like Bombay, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.
- Gradually, the movement gained back its peaceful form and continued till Mahatma Gandhi was released on May, 1944. This was the fourth phase of the movement.