What is Non-Cooperation Movement?
The non-cooperation movement in India was a series of movements by the nation under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi. The main idea of the non-cooperation movement in India was based on the nonviolent resistance to the British Government and Civil Disobedience. Mahatma Gandhi and the entire Indian National Congress headed the movement. The Non-Cooperation Movement marked the Gandhi Era in the phase of Indian Independence Movement in India. The movement began on September 1920 and continued till February 1922.
Factors Leading to Non-Cooperation Movement
These are following factors which led to the Non-Cooperation Movement in India:
- The viceroy of the British Parliament and Imperial Legislative Council introduced the Rowlatt Acts. This legislation imposed authoritarian restrictions upon the people of the nation. The police and army could search one's property or seize them and even arrest or detain someone without any evidence. This act came into effect on April 6, 1919 and angered the Indians.
- The Indians were infuriated at the decision of the British authorities to send the Indian soldiers to participate in World War I. The authorities did this without consulting the Indians in any form.
Non-Cooperation Movement Facts
- In Champaran and Kheda poor farmers were forced to grow cash crops like tobacco, indigo, and cotton instead of food crops. Also, in spite of famine, they had to pay taxes. Later the Governments signed agreements where the farmers were allowed to grow their own crops and without paying taxes.
- Indian revolutionaries like Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Jawaharlal Nehru and Rajendra Prasad joined hands with Mahatma Gandhi for the independence of India.
- Khilafat committee was formed by the Muslim leaders to fight the British.
- In 1919, at Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar a public meeting was held. British Troops under Reginald Dyer fired at people. This lead to the death of hundreds of men, women, and children. This is known as the Amritsar Massacre or the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre and it is one of the most infamous events in Indian History of independence.
- Gandhi came up with Satyagraha which was a protest nationwide, against the Rowlatt Acts. However, leaders like Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Mohammad Ali Jinnah, Bipin Chandra Pal, Annie Besant wanted to oppose the Government in other way.
Aftermath of Non-Cooperation Movement
The revolt movement shocked the British authorities. On 4th February 1922, in the Chauri Chaura, a violent clash broke up between local police and protestors. Gandhi went on for a 3 days fast to appeal to the Indians to stop all resistance and the movement was called off.